Career Development for Scientists - Data
Unfortunately, there is a lack of hard data on nontraditional careers - few places track people by what they used to be. Below are some of the best resources I've found for tracking and understanding the needs of this population. If you know of others that should be added, please let me know!
How Many Chemists Are There?
- Survey of Earned Doctorates, NSF - 2,704 new PhD chemists (2016)
- PostSecondary Teachers of Chemistry - 21,470 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014)
- Chemists and Materials Scientists - 98,400 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014)
- Chemists and Material Scientists - 86,356 (American Community Survey (ACS), subset of US Census data, 2015)
- American Chemical Society - more than 158,000 members
- Supply and Demand of Chemists in the United States, Tiffany Hoerter, Jakoah Brgoch, William Richard (Rick) Ewing, Katherine Glasgow, Lynne Greenblatt, Laura Kosbar, Beatriz Rios-Mckee, Chapter 2, pp 15–33, Chapter DOI: 10.1021/bk-2015-1195.ch002, ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 1195, 2015 From book Jobs, Collaborations, and Women Leaders in the Global Chemistry Enterprise; Cheng, H. N., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2015.
How Many New Faculty Positions Are There?
How Much Do Chemists Make?
- Salary Survey and Employment Reports - ChemCensus 2015 (American Chemical Society)
- 2015 Life Sciences Salary Survey, Karen Zusi and Amanda B. Keener | November 1, 2015
- The impact of postdoctoral training on early careers in biomedicine, Shulamit Kahn & Donna K Ginther, Nature Biotechnology, 35, 90–94 (2017) doi:10.1038/nbt.3766 . While postdocs are necessary for entry into tenure-track jobs, they do not enhance salaries in other job sectors over time. $
- The state of the job market in science, New Scientist, March 2016.
- Wrapping it up in a person: Examining employment and earnings outcomes for Ph.D. recipients, Nikolas Zolas, Nathan Goldschlag, Ron Jarmin, Paula Stephan, Jason Owen- Smith, Rebecca F. Rosen, Barbara McFadden Allen, Bruce A. Weinberg, Julia I. Lane, Science 11 Dec 2015, Vol. 350, Issue 6266, pp. 1367-1371. DOI: 10.1126/science.aac5949
- Are the "Best and Brightest" Going into Finance? Skill Development and Career Choice of MIT Graduates, Pian Shu, Working Paper 16-067, Dec 2015. Academic achievement in college is negatively correlated with a propensity to take a job in finance and positively correlated with a propensity to pursue a graduate degree or taking a job in S&E. In both high school and college, the two groups participate in different activities.
Where Do Chemists Work?
What Do Chemists Want to Do?
- Graduate Students
- The declining interest in an academic career, Roach M, Sauermann H (2017) PLoS ONE, 12(9): e0184130. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184130
- Improving Graduate Education to Support a Branching Career Pipeline: Recommendations Based on a Survey of Doctoral Students in the Basic Biomedical Sciences
C. N. Fuhrmann†, D. G. Halme*, P. S. O’Sullivan, and B. Lindstaedt, CBE—Life Sciences Education Vol. 10, 239–249, Fall 2011. Interest in tenure track faculty positions decreases, and in everything else increases, at end of 2nd year in grad school.
- Science PhD Career Preferences: Levels, Changes, and Advisor Encouragement, Henry Sauermann , Michael Roach, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036307. Career preferences adjust significantly during PhD training in chemistry, physics and life sciences. Published May 2, 2012.
- What Do I Want to Be with My PhD? The Roles of Personal Values and Structural Dynamics in Shaping the Career Interests of Recent Biomedical Science PhD Graduates,
Kenneth D. Gibbs Jr. and Kimberly A. Griffin, CBE—Life Sciences Education Vol. 12, 711–723, Winter 2013.
- Biomedical Science Ph.D. Career Interest Patterns by Race/Ethnicity and Gender, Kenneth D. Gibbs Jr. , John McGready, Jessica C. Bennett, Kimberly Griffin, PLoS ONE 9(12): e114736. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114736. Published 2014 Dec 10.
- PostDoctoral Scientists
- The impact of postdoctoral training on early careers in biomedicine, Shulamit Kahn & Donna K Ginther, Nature Biotechnology 35, 90–94 (2017) doi:10.1038/nbt.3766. While postdocs are necessary for entry into tenure-track jobs, they do not enhance salaries in other job sectors over time.
- Why pursue the postdoc path?
Complex, diverse rationales require nuanced policies, Henry Sauermann and Michael Roach, Science, 6 May 2016, Vol 352, Issue 6286, 663. Postdoc was default, holding pattern.
- Career Development among American Biomedical Postdocs, Kenneth D. Gibbs, Jr. John McGready, and Kimberly Griffin, CBE—Life Sciences Education Vol. 14, 1–12, Winter 2015. Postdocs know about more options, but have less clear goals, than grad students. Postdocs get more career development than grad students. Similar trends across different social groups.
- Alumni Perspectives on Career Preparation during a Postdoctoral Training Program: A Qualitative Study, Jessica M. Faupel-Badger, Kimberley Rau†, David E. Nelsn, and Sophia Tsakraklides, CBE—Life Sciences Education Vol. 14, 1–8, Spring 2015. Alumni value structured training curriculum, mentorship, transdisciplinary environmand and professional identify.
Where Do Our Graduates Go?
What is the Solution?
- Transforming Training to Reflect the Workforce, Sci Transl Med. 2015 April 29; 7(285): 285ed4. Best practices from NIH BEST (Broadending Experiences in Scientific Training).
- Value the broad range of research-related careers open to early-career scientists
- View these careers not only as legitimate, but also as essential
- Teach a strategic, skills-based approach to career planning in order to enable informed decision-making
- Complement and support individual mentoring and training by faculty
- Provide training simultaneously with graduate student and postdoc research
- Encourage active, time-efficient career development
- Rigorously test approaches
- Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 5773–5777; 2014. Suggested educating graduate students, broadening their career paths, reduce number of post-docs, use more staff scientists, and more.
- Rescuing Biomedical Research
- Emerging network of resources for exploring paths beyond academia, Fanuel Muindi & Joseph B Keller, Nature Biotechnology 33, 775–778 (2015) doi:10.1038/nbt.3282
Published online 08 July 2015. See especially the list of resources in the supplemental material. $
Career Development Resources
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